What is Multiple Sclerosis

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Multiple Sclerosis, or MS, is a central nervous system disease that may cause symptoms throughout the body.  Most experts believe it is an autoimmune illness, where the immune system mistakenly attacks normal tissues within the body. 

In MS’s case, the immune system attacks the myelin sheath that protects nerve pathways in the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerve. In the underlying nerve pathways can also be damaged or destroyed in this attack.

The attack progresses. The myelin sheath becomes inflamed and slowly is ruined, leaving mucous tissue (sclerosis) that disrupt the electrical impulses between the brain and other areas of the body.

The term “multiple sclerosis” identifies the multiple scar tissue regions – often called “lesions” — which develop along affected nerve fibers and are observable in MRI scans.

The literal meaning of”sclerosis” is the “pathological hardening of the tissue.” 

The lesions caused by MS and the subsequent disruption of neural impulses throughout the body cause most of the symptoms related to multiple sclerosis. 

Kinds of Multiple Sclerosis

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Scientists have long described different kinds of MS, the most frequent relapsing-remitting MS, primary-progressive MS, and secondary-progressive MS. However, lately, there’s a growing consensus that these are not different kinds of MS but instead points along a continuum.  At a certain point, inflammation is the overriding characteristic of the disease, while at others, neurodegeneration — in which old injuries to the brain and spinal cord worsen — predominates.

Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

Symptoms worsen (and new symptoms may develop), alternating with periods when symptoms are less acute.

As a relapse ends, the seriousness of symptoms diminishes; however, a person can be left with brand new, permanent symptoms.

Remissions may last for months or years before a relapse occurs. 

Most individuals with RRMS eventually develop secondary-progressive MS.

Secondary-Progressive MS (SPMS)

This type of MS is generally considered another stage of RRMS, where there are symptom progression and improved disability.

People with SPMS will continue to have relapses, though they may be less common than in RRMS.

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Most people that are diagnosed with RRMS will eventually transition to SPMS. Still, every person’s encounter with it — whether or not they’ve relapsed and how much progression, or disorder worsening, happens — will be unique. 

Primary-Progressive MS (PPMS)

In PPMS, there is no first relapse that indicates the start of the disease. Instead, MS symptoms gradually appear over time.  Those Who have PPMS generally do not undergo acute exacerbations or have distinct remissions, but they’ve temporary plateaus through which symptoms decrease somewhat.

About 15 percent of people with MS are diagnosed with PPMS, according to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society (NMSS).

Benign MS

A small percentage of people with MS have a benign MS form of the disease, where symptoms advancement minimal throughout an individual’s lifetime after the initial attack.

There is some controversy over how (or if) to classify people with benign MS since the improvement of the disorder can vary over a person’s life span, according to the NMSS. 

Malignant MS

A small number of individuals with MS have cancerous MS, which is marked by the rapid formation of lesions within the brain and spine, resulting in acute symptoms, disability, and potentially death.

Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Sclerosis

What is Multiple Sclerosis

The nerve injury in MS can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on what part of the central nervous system has been attacked.  MS can affect numerous areas of the mind and the optic nerve — the nerve transmits signals from the eye to the brain — and the spinal cord. 

It is often stated that no two individuals with MS have the same pattern of symptoms.  Additionally, a person’s symptoms can change or change in severity as time passes.

Common Symptoms

Some common early symptoms of MS include visual problems, difficulties with walking and balance, numbness and tingling, and heat intolerance. 

Other common symptoms include:

  • Anxiety
  • Bladder and bowel dysfunction
  • Depression
  • Dizziness
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle spasticity
  • Pain
  • Problems with thinking and memory
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Sleep problems
  • Vertigo
  • Weakness

Uncommon Symptoms

Less common symptoms of multiple sclerosis include:

  • Breathing problems
  • Difficulty moving arms
  • Difficulty reading facial expressions
  • Diminished fine motor control in hands
  • Diminished sense of taste or smell
  • Headache
  • Hearing loss
  • Hypersensitivity to touch
  • Itchy skin or altered sensations
  • Lhermitte’s sign
  • “MS hug”
  • Pseudobulbar affect
  • Seizures
  • Sensitivity to cold
  • Speaking problems
  • Swallowing problems
  • Tremor
  • Trigeminal neuralgia

In many cases, MS symptoms can be treated, sometimes with drugs and sometimes with a form of rehabilitation, such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, or cognitive treatment.  People with MS that are depressed can often be helped by the same types of antidepressants, psychotherapy, and lifestyle changes beneficial to depressed people who don’t have MS.

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Even When therapy can’t relieve an MS symptom altogether, it can often reduce its severity.

What Is a Multiple Sclerosis Relapse?

What is Multiple Sclerosis

A relapse, or flare, is a worsening of existing MS symptoms — physical and cognitive — often accompanied by the appearance of Fresh symptoms.  Relapses occur because of inflammation of previously existing lesions, new regions of inflammation in the central nervous system, or both.   

Typically, relapses come on over hours or days and may last for days or weeks.

A True relapse happens at least 30 days following your most recent relapse and lasts for at least 24 hours.  Shorter lengths of symptom worsening, known as pseudo exacerbations, may be triggered by heat, stress, and fatigue, among other items. However, after the underlying cause of a pseudo exacerbation is eliminated or reduced, the MS symptoms should abate too.

Remedy for a relapse frequently contains a short path of high-dose steroids, for example, Solu-Medrol (methylprednisolone), delivered intravenously in an inpatient clinic or infusion facility.

Steroids speed retrieval but cannot repair any fresh damage to the nervous system caused by the inflammation.

A person may recover fully from a relapse or might have lingering symptoms subsequently. While the use of disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) should lessen the number of relapses an individual has — and therefore the sum of residual handicap — at least one study of over 1600 people with MS who had been taking DMDs, printed in November 2018 in the journal Multiple Sclerosis, discovered a high rate of incomplete recovery 12 months afterward in those people who had experienced acute relapses.

Multiple Sclerosis Causes

Multiple sclerosis causes is unknown — nobody knows what sets off the immune reaction that contributes to MS lesions in the first place.  But it is believed that genetic susceptibility and environmental causes are critical to trigger the disease.

Some researchers suspect that specific types of viral infections trigger the immune attack. Others point to low vitamin D levels as a leading cause. Cigarette smoking is known to boost the risk of growing MS.

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Approximately 20 percent of individuals with MS have a family member who has it, but even having an identical twin with MS increases the risk by just 20 to 40 percent.

Some Other risk factors for MS include being a girl, vitamin D deficiency, obesity, acquiring an autoimmune condition, smoking, exposure to the senile virus, using multiple concussions during adolescence, and living further away from the equator.

How Is Multiple Sclerosis Diagnosed?

MS Is usually diagnosed based on an individual’s history of symptoms, alongside the results of a variety of health tests, which might include:

  • A Neurologic evaluation of bodily movement and coordination, vision, balance, and psychological performance
  • Blood Tests to rule out other states
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans to detect brain lesions typical of MS.
  • Lumbar Puncture (spinal tap) to get cerebrospinal fluid, which might contain substances more likely to be found in people with MS

Diagnosing MS premature is critical so that treatment can begin early to slow the illness’s progression.

But, No single evaluation can definitively diagnose the disease. Also, MS symptoms mimic those of several different conditions.

In symptoms can also come and go from one day per week to the next and change gradually with time.

Prognosis of Multiple Sclerosis

According to the National MS Society, even though

MS can sometimes be a debilitating disorder; most people who have it do not become seriously disabled.

Many Individuals with MS can maintain their mobility with assistive devices, like canes or crutches, often supplemented with scooters or motorized wheelchairs for long distances. About one-third of people with MS completely lose their ability to walk.

People with MS who have the best prognosis are usually those who:

  • Are female
  • Were younger than 30 when the disease started
  • Have infrequent attacks
  • Have relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)
  • Have few signs of disease in diagnostic scans

A Study reported in August 2019 in the journal Brain may improve doctors’ ability to give long-term prognoses to people in the first phases of MS.

The CIS, from time to time, although not necessarily, develops into MS. From the 166 research participants evaluated after 15 decades, certain types of lesions in their first MRIs were linked to the development of secondary-progressive MS at follow-up.  

Duration of Multiple Sclerosis

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Although studies have shown that MS is rarely fatal, it shortens a person’s life expectancy by about six or seven decades, at least in developed nations.

Studies Who have analyzed causes of death among individuals with MS have discovered pulmonary (lung) diseases to be a primary reason for excessive death in this population. One study found that sepsis is a significant cause of MS-related deaths.

Sepsis Is a life-threatening, whole-body inflammation that is triggered by a severe illness. It most commonly occurs in people who have a weakened immune system.

But With better treatments currently available for MS, the gap in life expectancy for people with MS can decrease.  Several MS drugs could slow the development of the illness and lower the frequency and severity of relapses.

Treatment and Medicine Alternatives for Multiple Sclerosis

Remedy for MS often includes disease-modifying medication to decrease the quantity and severity of relapses in those who have them and slow disease development. However, these drugs don’t treat MS symptoms, nor are they effective at shortening an MS relapse that’s in progress. 

For this reason, treating MS generally involves A multipronged approach, including:

Utilizing high doses of steroids or occasionally plasmapheresis to shorten relapses

Using disease-modifying remedies to prevent relapses and disease development

Treating the signs of MS with drugs, physical therapy, other types of rehabilitative treatments, a wholesome lifestyle, and complementary remedies

Supplying counseling and support for depression, anxiety, and other mood disorders. Disease-Modifying Therapy OptionsFor

For people who have relapsing-remitting MS, a couple of disease-modifying drugs can slow multiple sclerosis progression and lower the frequency and severity of severe attacks. 

Disease-Modifying Therapy Options

For those who have relapsing-remitting MS, a handful of disease-modifying drugs may slow the progression of multiple sclerosis and lower the frequency and severity of acute attacks.   

For people with primary-progressive MS, just one medication, Ocrevus (ocrelizumab), was demonstrated to reduce disability development odds. 

And For individuals who have “active” secondary-progressive MS, meaning that they experience relapses and new lesions continue to be seen in their MRIs, two medications, Mayzent (siponimod) and Mavenclad (cladribine), were approved in spring 2019. 

Treatments for MS Symptoms

Doctors can prescribe a wide array of drugs to relieve symptoms related to MS, contain analgesics for pain; antispasmodics, such as baclofen, and muscle relaxants, like Zanaflex (tizanidine), to alleviate muscle spasticity; and Ampyra (dalfampridine) to improve walking ability.

Physical Therapy can also help manage fatigue, fatigue, pain, and spasticity.  A physical therapist may prescribe stretches, exercises, and other means of performing physical activities to improve energy levels and bodily operation.

Occupational Treatment is frequently used to find more straightforward or alternative ways to accomplish daily living tasks, including utilizing assistive devices and energy conservation techniques.

Your doctor can also refer you for speech-language therapy to tackle problems with swallowing or speaking, cognitive treatment for assistance with memory and thinking activities, and psychotherapy for help with depression, stress, grief, or just distress related to living with a chronic illness.

In Addition to formal treatment and treatment, exercise and meditation have been proven to improve functioning and quality of life for people living with MS.

Prevention of Multiple Sclerosis

As of yet, there’s no surefire approach to prevent multiple sclerosis, in substantial part because the origin of the disease isn’t however, fully understood.  But some nutritious behaviors can lower a person’s risk of MS.

Vitamin D

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Getting adequate vitamin D — from the sun, food, and nutritional supplements — is one way to lower your risk of MS possibly. A study published in April 2018 in Neurology found that growing up in a sunny place and using a high amount of sun exposure in the summer was associated with a lower chance of developing MS. In a study published in October 2018 in The International Journal of Neuroscience, the individuals diagnosed with the clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) who developed MS had lower vitamin D levels than those who didn’t.

Obtaining so While no guarantee increasing your vitamin D levels will prevent MS, it’s also likely to do no injury, as long as you remain within safe limits of both sunlight and vitamin D supplementation. 


Perhaps not smoking is just another approach that may lower MS risk.  According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, smokers and individuals exposed to second-hand smoke are known to have an elevated chance of developing MS.  Quitting smoking may therefore decrease your risk and of those people around you.

Healthy Weight

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Maintaining a healthy weight, especially in childhood, can also lower a person’s MS risk. A study published in May 2019 at JAMA Neurology found that obesity in children is associated with an increased risk of esophageal MS. Also, the children who had been obese reacted well to first-line MS medication than those who were not.

Obesity In ancient life has also been associated with a greater risk of developing MS as an adult, according to a review published in March 2018 in Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports. 

Complications of Multiple Sclerosis

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Beyond The direct effects of MS symptoms — of which there are many and varying severities –there could be added consequences of some signs. 

Urinary Tract Infections

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, bladder issues are prevalent in people with MS, affecting at least 80% of them.

Some people have difficulty holding their pee in (incontinence), while some can not empty their bladder (retention).

Failing To empty the bladder altogether increases the danger of developing a urinary tract infection (UTI), resulting in worsening of MS symptoms, as well as discomfort when urinating, needing to urinate frequently, and discharging only small amounts of urine.

If Not treated immediately, a urinary tract infection can lead to a kidney disease, which can be a medical emergency. 


Sometimes people with MS have difficulty swallowing, called dysphagia. When a swallow’s timing is away, or even the muscles involved in swallowing are feeble, foods and liquids may enter the airway rather than the esophagus, in which they belong.

If the individual can’t cough forcefully enough to expel them, the food and liquid may end up in the lungs. This can result in aspiration pneumonia, a severe illness that can require hospitalization.

Symptoms of aspiration pneumonia may include chest discomfort, fever, shortness of breath, and coughing up foul-smelling phlegm. You should seek medical assistance if you experience these symptoms.

Physical Trauma from Falling

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Many MS symptoms, such as balance problems, muscle weakness, nausea, fatigue, blurred vision, and tingling, increase the risk of falling.

Falls, in turn, raises the danger of severe injuries, such as broken bones and head trauma.  Psychotherapy may also cause fear of falling, causing a person to become less energetic, lower, and even more prone to falling.

Through a selection of strategies to build leg strength, improve balance, Fall-proof your house, and address potential dizziness causes.      

Pressure Sores

People with MS who spend most of their time sitting or lying down need to be aware of — and take steps to stop — pressure sores.  Also known as bedsores or pressure ulcers, pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by applying pressure to the site for too long.

They often grow in places where the bones are close to the skin, like the heels, tailbone, shoulder blades, and elbows. A combination of moving more frequently, using unique cushions or mattresses, and assessing your skin daily can prevent pressure sores or catch them early.

Risk of Depression High in Multiple Sclerosis

Depression is common among people who have MS, not merely because it’s trying to have an unpredictable, progressive disease.

Depression in MS might be an immediate result of the immune system’s attack on the protective myelin sheaths that envelop nerve fibers, causing behavioral changes, including depression.

Multiple Sclerosis can also change the body’s neuroendocrine system, which manages hormone release, including hormones implicated in depression, such as melatonin.

Additionally, the medications used in the treatment of MS, such as interferon beta, can also cause depression.

And occasionally, melancholy develops as a consequence of the anxieties and challenges associated with having MS.

Research and Statistics: Who Has Multiple Sclerosis?

For decades, most major health organizations estimated that the incidence of MS in the USA in 400,000, but research published in March 2019 in the journal Neurology upped the estimate of the number of Americans living with MS to 1 million. The investigators used private, military, and public health claims data to arrive at this amount.

What is Multiple Sclerosis

Going in the meantime, what is known presently about MS is that while everyone can develop it, many of those who have it share these characteristics:

Age the majority experience their first symptoms between the ages of 20 and 40. 

Race Caucasians have been considered to be more than twice as likely as other races to develop MS. However, the underrepresentation of ethnic and racial minorities in clinical trials calls this belief into question. 

Gender MS is two to three times more common in women than in men.

Climate MS is five times more common in temperate climates — such as the northern United States, Canada, and Europe — than in tropical climates. 

Genes Individuals whose close relatives have MS tend to be more susceptible to developing the disease, but there is no evidence the disease is directly inherited.

Black Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

It is unknown exactly how prevalent MS is among Black Americans, in part because scientists have only just begun to investigate this question. In part because the complicated causes of MS imply the disorder’s incidence is very likely to vary from 1 study population to another.

According to on his study, Bruce Cree, MD, Ph.D., a neurologist and the clinical study director in the multiple sclerosis center at the University of California in San Francisco, estimates that compared with people of Northern European ancestry in the USA, people of African ancestry develop MS at about half the rate. Nevertheless, Black Americans often develop more aggressive forms of MS than white Americans do, using a larger percentage having spinal lesions, indicating more aggressive disease.

Studies have generally suggested that the MS treatments that work for white people also work for African Americans as much as treating MS in Black Americans. Indeed, Black Americans have been mostly absent from clinical trials for MS treatments, the fact that Jagannadha”Jay” Avasarala, MD, a neurologist and MS expert at the UK Kentucky Neuroscience Institute at Lexington finds “unacceptable.” Still, he admits there may be no “easy fix.”

In the meantime, anyone, of any race, with symptoms that indicate MS, should seek medical care for identification and appropriate treatment.

Conditions Related to Multiple Sclerosis

Several health conditions occur at a greater frequency in people with MS without being direct outward symptoms or symptoms of MS. In several cases, the link between the diseases remains unclear.

Headache and Migraine

Though some studies have found that beginning disease-modifying remedies to deal with MS reduce the incidence and frequency of headaches, many others have found that specific MS therapies are connected to more headaches.

For example, a study reported in the January 2019 problem of Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders found that 68 percent of the 754 research participants reported headaches; 39 percent were a headache.  Even though 20 percent of these participants said that their headaches started began after starting a medication treatment.  There were more headaches in those being treated with interferon beta drugs, of which there are some approved for MS treatment.  

However, in a study published in the February 2019 dilemma of European Neurology, participants reported fewer headaches after MS medication initiation. The investigators in this study asked 50 individuals with new-onset MS in their current history of headache.   Six months after, the percentage of those experiencing aggravation dropped to 61 percent.  The researchers reasoned that frequent headaches may be an early sign of MS and that the decrease in headaches seen from the analysis could result from the effects of immunomodulatory therapy given to treat the MS.


Fibromyalgia Is occasionally mistaken for MS, and MS is sometimes mistaken for fibromyalgia. Both happen more frequently in girls, leading to fatigue, pain, and brain fog, among other symptoms.  However, is there a connection between the two that goes beyond those commonalities?

A study published online in July 2018 in the Multiple Sclerosis Journal examined the health records of almost 14,000 individuals with MS from four Canadian places and compared them with the documents of nearly 67,000 individuals without MS. However, since the analysis aimed to recognize early signs of MS, it didn’t research the connection between fibromyalgia and MS further.   

An at least one researcher, Ethan B. Russo, MD, has theorized that multiple sclerosis and fibromyalgia — as well as migraine, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), along with a few other ailments — share an underlying problem he calls clinical endocannabinoid deficiency.

Endocannabinoid receptors are located in the brain, nerves, skin, blood vessels, and other organs throughout the body. 

According to Dr. Russo, in an article printed in July 2016 in Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, “All humans possess an inherent endocannabinoid tone that’s a reflection of levels of the endocannabinoids, anandamide (arachidonoylethanolamide), and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, their creation, metabolism, and the relative prosperity and condition of cannabinoid receptors” A lack in endocannabinoid tone,” he says, gives rise to pathophysiology, or functional changes that describe various diseases and MS syndromes.

In the same article, Russo describes existing research of cannabis-based treatment for IBS, migraine, fibromyalgia, several other conditions, and forecasts for randomized clinical trials in this research area.  


What is Multiple Sclerosis
Diagnosis epilepsy in a medical form on the doctor desk

According to the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, seizures will be the hallmark of epilepsy, and they occasionally occur in MS also, although they’re relatively uncommon, arising from the 2 to 5 percent of the MS population.

Just as in people with epilepsy, seizures that occur in people with MS result from neurons shooting abnormally.  However, the particular cause of attacks from MS is unknown.  MS lesions may trigger them within the brain in vulnerable individuals. Indeed, a study published in June 2019 at Frontiers in Neurology concluded that “Cortical lesions occurring in MS patients may play an important part in comorbid epilepsy.” But there is much that is still unknown regarding the link between MS and epilepsy.

Myths and Facts About Multiple Sclerosis

MS is not a rare disease, but it’s not that common, either. It is no surprise that many men and women know very little about it, which sometimes what they know is wrong.  Additionally, scientists’ understanding of MS increases the risk of getting it, how best to treat it, and how to live well with it has progressed considerably in the past several decades.  So even some doctors may hold outdated beliefs about MS. For men and women who live with the disease, it’s essential to know what’s what. 

MS Diet: Healthy Eating Habits for Multiple Sclerosis

A healthy diet for those who have multiple sclerosis is not so different from a healthy diet for anyone.  Fundamental Excellent nutrition — sufficient calories from a mix of lean proteins, whole-grain carbohydrate sources, vegetables, fruits, and healthy fats (in fish, seeds, nuts, and petroleum ) — can go a long way toward type two diabetes and cardiovascular disease.  Certain foods may also help manage symptoms connected with MS; for example, high-fiber foods helping alleviate constipation.

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